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Northern Africa

Welcome to the other side of the Mediterranean! These North African countries welcome you, stretching from the Atlantic shores of Morocco on the west coast all the way to the Suez Canal and the Red Sea in the east. 

Visited by every empire and/or European (as well as Arabian) civilization you can think of this world region is brimming with tradition and history. 

To survive in North Africa, you must accept the desert as your master, and then overcome it! 

The Nile River is in northern Africa spanning 10 countries that include Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, and ending in Egypt as it feeds into the Mediterranean Sea. 
The Nile River is the longest river in the world, beating out the Amazon by 155 Feet. The Nile is considered to have two sources of which one originates in Uganda and the other in Ethiopia. Upon receiving official recognition as a natural wonder, Uganda's Minister of Tourism declared the source as a protected area. Uganda is also home to Murchison Falls which is an incredible waterfall on the Nile. The tremendous Nile River forces its way between narrow canyon walls to create the thunderous Murchison Falls. 
Much of the Nile River meanders through the Sahara Desert as it makes its way north toward the Mediterranean. The Nile starts with two sources in the south and finishes with two branches as it splits as it completes the journey in Egypt. The west branch is known as Rosetta whereas the east is called Damietta. This area is known as the Nile Delta. 



Morocco is in the northwestern corner of Africa across the Mediterranean Sea and the Strait of Gibraltar from Spain. Morocco has an area of 446,300 square kilometers, not including 250 square kilometers of coastal waters, which makes it slightly larger than California. Western Sahara, claimed by Morocco, has an area of about 266,000 square kilometers. Morocco's land boundaries measure 2,017.9 kilometers, including a 1,559-kilometer border with Algeria and a 443-kilometer border with Western Sahara. Morocco also shares a border with Spain around that nation's two African enclaves at Ceuta (6.3 kilometers) and Melilla (9.6 kilometers). 

Morocco's coastline along the Northern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea measures 1,835 kilometers. Morocco claims a territorial sea of 12 nautical miles, a contiguous zone of 24 nautical miles, and an exclusive economic zone of 200 nautical miles, as well as a continental shelf to a depth of 200 meters or to the depth of exploitation. 

Four rugged mountain chains dominate Morocco's topography and divide the country into three geographic regions: the mountainous interior, including plateaus and fertile valleys; the Atlantic coastal lowlands; and the semiarid and arid area of eastern and southern Morocco where the mountains descend gradually into the Sahara Desert. In the north, the Rif Mountain range runs parallel to the Mediterranean. South of the Rif range, a series of three Atlas Mountain ranges overlap one another as they slant across the country on a northeast-southwest axis. The most northerly of the three, the Middle Atlas range, is separated from the Rif by only a narrow corridor. The lofty High Atlas range is situated immediately to the south of the Middle Atlas range and is parallel to it. Farther south and to the west lies the Anti-Atlas range.

Morocco has the most extensive river system in North Africa. Its two most important rivers are the Moulouya, which flows into the Mediterranean Sea, and the Sebou, which flows into the Atlantic Ocean. 


The Rif and Atlas Mountain ranges divide Morocco into two climatic zones: one that receives the westerly winds from the Atlantic and one that is influenced by the proximity of the Sahara Desert. Western and northern Morocco has a Mediterranean (subtropical) climate, with mild winters and hot, dry summers. On the Atlantic Coast, the mean temperature is 16.4º C to 23º C. By contrast, the climate is more extreme in the interior, where it is subject to wide seasonal variation, with temperatures ranging from 10º C to 27º C. The pre-Saharan south has a semiarid climate. Rainfall varies from moderate in the northwest to scanty in the south and east. The rainy seasons are April-May and October-November. Only the mountains receive rain in the summer. Because of its inconsistent rainfall, Morocco is subject to periodic droughts, which take a considerable toll on agriculture. 

Morocco's store of natural resources is modest, with one notable exception. Morocco is home to two-thirds of the world's reserves of phosphates, which are used to produce fertilizers. Other resources include copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, salt, silver, and zinc. In 2005 Morocco's land use was distributed as follows: arable land, 19 percent; permanent crops, 2 percent; and other, 79 percent. 

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Casablanca (CMN); Marrakech (RAK)

Morocco covers the territory of the Western Sahara. Geographically, Morocco comprises 4 areas – the Sahara Desert, with its oases and Berber town; The Rif and High Atlas Mountain ranges (geared toward adventurers and hikers); the plains, home to the renowned cities, Fez and Marrakesh; and the sandy shores along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. The small coastal towns of Casablanca and Rabat can be found in this area.


Morocco is a storied country, that has, over the centuries, woven its ties to sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and the wider Middle East into whole cloth. Its mixed Arab and Berber population form a strong national identity, but an increasingly youthful one, taking the best of its traditions and weaving the pattern anew – from the countryside to the city, from the call to prayer from the mosque to the beat of local hip hop.

Morocco has a hundred faces and sounds, all ready to welcome the traveler looking for spice and adventure. 

When you visit Morocco, you not only experience a rich culture, but you can also travel over a diverse terrain – an area that spans from sea level on the Atlantic Coast and climbs to an elevation of 2,300 meters (13,000 feet) in the High Atlas Mountains. Morocco’s attractions include Jbel Toubkal, Africa’s twenty-second highest mountain; numerous World Heritage sites; and 11 national parks, all which feature a variety of wildlife. 

Few countries in the world offer the ultimate escape like Morocco. Here, aqua waters caress white-sand beaches and snow glistens on the peaks of the Atlas Mountains. Rest assured that, behind city walls, an adventure waits – one that will lead you on a journey filled with interesting art, unique architecture, and savory cuisine. 

Souvenirs on the Jamaa el Fna market in old Medina, Marrakesh, Morocco.jpg

For example, only in Morocco will you find alleys that open up to busy and bustling souks – each tent filled with spice baskets and lavishly colored silks. Hammams also allow tired travelers to indulge in salt scrubs and relaxing steam baths while desert vistas invite adventure seekers to climb or hike seaside cliffs or explore trails that lead to higher elevations.

Visiting Essaouira 


This all leads the intrepid traveler to wonder what activities he or she should include on a Moroccan holiday. If you like to windsurf, you will find the ideal place in Essaouira, a resort town on the Atlantic shore. The Skala de la Kasbah and its eighteenth-century ramparts shield the city’s medina while strong and steady trade winds invite surfing, kite-surfing and wind-surfing activities

Camel Riding Across Erg Chebbi 


If you are not into windsurfing or other surfing pastimes, you can arrange a trip to the city of Fez, where you can get your fill of souk shopping in the medieval town’s marketplace. You might also consider de-stressing at a hammam (steam bath) in Marrakesh or riding a camel 6) across the golden dunes of sand in Erg Chebbi. Erg Chebbi represents one of Morocco's various ergs – seas of sand dunes created by the wind. The ergs lie inside the Pre-Saharan Steppes, north of the Sahara Desert. At this point, you may be asking: When is the best time to travel to Morocco? 

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Because Morocco’s geography varies in nature, the best travel time depends on where you want to go. However, April or May offer the best weather. Try not to travel in the Sahara region and, to a lesser degree, to plains cities in the middle of summer. Instead, reserve midsummer visits to coastal cities, such as Rabat and Essaouira. 

In winter, you should avoid traveling to the mountains in Morocco. Most accommodations do not provide heating and are remote. Consider reserving mountain trips and tours for the summer months. For those seeking to winter travel in the desert, the days may be clear, sunny, and free of precipitation, but nighttime can be unexpectedly cool and even cold. 



Before you travel to Morocco pay a visit to Apex Physicians and to have our specialists determine whether you need to be vaccinated or not. In some instances, those travelling from overseas to Morocco will require vaccinations, alongside routine vaccinations if you have not already received them. 

Getting vaccinated is crucial so that you do not put yourself at risk of ruining your trip, and you also do not run the risk of bringing anything home. Vaccinations are crucial not just for your own sake, but for the sake of those around you. 


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Egypt is in northern Africa and shares borders with Gaza Strip, Israel, Libya, and Sudan. Egypt's boundaries also include the Sinai Peninsula.  Its topography consists of a desert plateau, but the eastern part is cut by the Nile River valley. The highest point in Egypt is Mount Catherine at 8,625 feet (2,629 m), while its lowest point is the Qattara Depression at -436 feet (-133 m). Egypt's total area of 386,662 square miles (1,001,450 sq km) makes it the 30th largest country in the world.


The climate of Egypt is desert and as such, it has extremely hot, dry summers and mild winters. Cairo, Egypt's capital which is in the Nile valley, has an average July elevated temperature of 94.5 degrees (35˚C) and an average January low of 48 degrees (9˚C). 

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Cairo (CAI)

A cradle of ancient civilization, Egypt is a country you must visit at least once in your lifetime. Steeped in ancient history, where a rich culture stands proud, Egypt has achieved a delicate balance between the old and the new. An enigmatic treasure trove of almost unimaginable archaeological and cultural riches, it is hard not to think of Egypt without imagining the Sphinx, the pyramids at Giza, Luxor, the Valley of the Kings, and the Nile. As well as being the world's largest open-air museum, Egypt also offers a slew of luxurious Red Sea resorts, many within reach of spectacular snorkeling, diving, and windsurfing. Whether you see it by riverboat, by camelback, or from just above the coral, Egypt's sights are unforgettable. If you have always wanted to visit this stunning country, here are some of the most brilliant experiences in Egypt which will make you want to visit this historic country right away! 

Pyramids of Giza 

The Pyramids of Giza and the Great Sphinx, Egypt.jpg

The last standing landmark of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, these pyramids were built by the ancient Egyptian civilization as tombs for their powerful Pharaohs and it is the biggest identifying landmark of Egypt. These pyramids are guarded by the majestic Sphinx and this entire construction is a testament to the highly advanced scientific feats of ancient Greek civilization. 

Temples of Luxor 

The old capital of the pharaohs, Luxor is an open-air museum with its rich

history scattered in every corner of the city. While it is most famous for Karnak Temple, the Memorial Temple of Hatshepsut, and the Valley of the Kings, there are numerous ancient tombs and temples which will absolutely blow your mind. 

EXPLORING EGYPT - KARNAK TEMPLE - Large sculptures of pharaohs inside beautiful Egyptian l

Cairo City

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Explore the ancient Islamic Cairo and visit the famous Al-Azhar Mosque, the dazzling Sultan Hassan Mosque, and several other mosques and minarets from the Fatimid to the Mameluke era. Climb up to the roof of the Bab Zuweila, shop at the famous Khan el-Khalili souk, and soak the essence of the ancient city in its myriad labyrinths of history


Founded by Alexander the Great, this seaside city was the home to Cleopatra. There are some remnants of the rich past, which is seen in its époque architecture of buildings, grand squares, gardens, citadel, etc. It is a laidback city where you can relax after a long day, or take a lazy stroll along the seashore Corniche, enjoy Egyptian food at the cafés, or shop till you drop at the souk. 

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Nile Cruise 

After a hectic trip, relax and enjoy the sights, sounds, and beauty of Egypt, its history, and nature on a Nile River cruise. There are several options ranging from a day cruise to a three or more-day-long cruise covering different areas to the unique cruise by Felucca. These cruises start from Luxor and Aswan. 

Mount Sinai 


Mount Sinai Apart from its enormous religious significance as mentioned in the book of Exodus of the Bible and the Quran, Mount Sinai is also a stunning place to enjoy the natural beauty 8) of Egypt. You can hike the mountain and enjoy a glorious sunrise or take a dip in the soothing waters of the Red Sea. 

Siwa Oasis 

Built around the ruins of an ancient mud-brick citadel, Siwa Oasis is famous for its desert, rugged terrain, and hot springs. You can also find some of the most exquisite jewelers crafted by the local Siwans. Do not forget to taste the freshly grown dates and olives. 

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The Fjord Bay 

One of the most spectacular and uncommon destinations that you can visit in Egypt is Fjord Bay, a bustling, scenic, and colorful town, at the border of Egypt and Israel. Indulge in some of the best adventures and sports or simply enjoy the beauty of the azure waters and let the balmy weather caress you. 

White Desert 

11 A marvel of nature, the White Desert is an otherworldly experience for all nature lovers. The naturally occurring snow-white rock formations in the middle of the desert are surreal! Created by nature out of chalk during sandstorms, it looks like something straight out of a sci-fi movie set. 

History, culture, food, and nature come together to bless Egypt with unending bounties which make it one of the most stunning countries in the world. Egypt is an experience that you will never forget. 



Non-essential travel to Egypt is not recommended. The U.S. Department of State has issued travel warnings to Egypt. Travelers should use reputable Egyptian travel agencies if they still decide to make the trip. Those agencies are informed about security issues and will provide you with the best advice. 

Before you travel to Egypt, pay a visit to Apex Physicians and have our specialists determine whether you need to be vaccinated or not. In some instances, those traveling from overseas to Egypt will require vaccinations, alongside routine vaccinations if you have not already received them. 

Getting vaccinated is crucial so that you do not put yourself at risk of ruining your trip, and you also do not run the risk of bringing anything home. Vaccinations are crucial not just for your own sake, but for the sake of those around you. 



Vaccines cannot protect you from many diseases in Morocco, so talk at length with our Physicians who specialized in travel medicine regarding specific actions you can take to stay healthy and safe on your trip. 

Food and water safety  

Unclean food and water can cause travelers' diarrhea and other diseases.  Eat; foods that are cooked and served hot. Fruits and vegetables washed in clean water, and or peeled yourself. Do NOT eat; food from street vendors, raw or uncooked meats, unpeeled or unwashed fruits, and vegetables and avoid “bushmeat” -wild game, at ALL costs.  Drink: carbonated drinks, avoid drinking from any unregulated water sources such as private wells, bring along bottled water, drink water that is served to steam hot, avoid tap water, fountain drinks, and ice as it was likely made with tap water or another unregulated water source.  Public beaches around major cities are sometimes unsafe to swim in due to pollution. Travelers should exercise caution to ensure the water is safe to swim in. 


Talk with our travel medicine physicians about taking prescription or over-the-counter medications with you on your trip in the event you are sick.  

Bug Bite Prevention  

Italy is an industrialized country; however, bugs are still prevalent and bug bites here can still spread diseases, just as they would in the United States. 

Wear clothing that covers exposed skin.  

Use insect repellent with higher percentages of active ingredients i.e., 20% or more DEET, Picaridin- for protection against mosquitoes and ticks.  

Consider wearing clothing that has been treated with permethrin.  

Always use insect repellent as directed. 


Reduce Germ Exposure  

Wash your hands often with soap and use hand sanitizer, especially before eating, touching your face, and avoiding contact with people who are sick. 

Maintain Personal Safety  

Exercising a high degree of caution while in Morocco due to terrorist threats is highly recommended by the US government. Travel is particularly risky in the Western Sahara border region, where there are thousands of unexploded mines and reported incidents of violence. 

Terrorist threats are higher in crowded public places, government buildings, transportation hubs and places of worship. Establishments associated with the U.S. are at a heightened risk. Travelers should also avoid all political and social demonstrations. 

Travelers should be aware of the risks of petty crime and maintain vigilance. City buses are not considered safe. 

Always use common sense when traveling overseas by always staying alert and aware of your surroundings.  

Wear modest clothing – store all valuables including your passport and entry stamp in your locked hotel room. 

Bring a photocopy of your passport and entry stamp. 

Follow all local laws and social customs. 

If possible, choose hotel rooms between the 2nd and 6th floors. 

Animal avoidance  

Most animals avoid people, but they may attack if they feel threatened, are protecting their young or territory, or if they are injured or ill. Animal bites and scratches can lead to serious diseases such as rabies.


Protect yourself by: 


Not touching or feeding unknown animals. 

Not allowing animals to lick open wounds, and do not get animal saliva in your eyes or mouth. 

Avoiding rodents and their urine and feces. 

Supervising your traveling pets closely and not allowing them to come into contact with local animals. 

Seeking medical care immediately if you awake in a room with a bat. Bat bites may be hard to see. 

All animals can pose a threat, but be extra careful around dogs, bats, monkeys, and sea animals such as jellyfish, and snakes. If you are bitten or scratched by an animal, immediately: 

Wash the wound with soap and clean water. 

Go to a doctor right away. 

Tell our travel medicine physicians about your injury when you get back to the United States. 

Consider buying medical evacuation insurance. Rabies is a deadly disease that must be treated quickly, and treatment may not be available in some countries. 




Apex Physicians recommends a post-travel consultation immediately after your trip.  Our specialists will perform an overall health/wellness and prescription evaluation. Be sure to tell our specialists about your trip, including where you went and what you did on your trip. In addition, tell our specialists if you had any adverse interaction with bugs and/or animals, or were bitten or scratched by an animal while traveling. 




8, Bd Moulay Youssef 
Casablanca, Morocco 
Telephone: +(212) (522) 642-099 
Emergency After-Hours Telephone: +(212) (661) 13-19-39 
Fax: +(212) (522) 29-77-01 


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